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Clinical Pathology - Haematology, Cytology & Histopathology

To help keep individuals a step ahead of diseases and disorders, SLG offers a spectrum of diagnostic services to quickly identify the problem at an early stage for timely remedial measures to be taken.

With state-of-the-art laboratories and highly qualified and trained specialists, SLG is preeminently positioned to provide accurate, reliable information that allows effective treatment pathways to be drawn-up for patients. In fact, these services go a long way towards enabling us to deliver on the promise to provide world class healthcare for all.

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Best Pathology Services in Hyderabad

Pathology is a branch of medical science that focuses on the study and diagnosis of disease through the examination of surgically removed organs, tissues (biopsy samples), bodily fluids, and in some cases the whole body (autopsy). Aspects of a bodily specimen that may be considered include its gross anatomical make up, appearance of the cells using immunological markers and chemical signatures in the cells. Pathology also includes the related scientific study of disease processes whereby the causes, mechanisms and extent of disease are examined. Areas of study include cellular adaptation to injury, necrosis (death of living cells or tissues), inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia (abnormal new growth of cells).

Pathologists specialize in diagnosing a wide range of diseases including cancer. The cellular pattern of tissue samples are observed under a microscope to help determine if a sample is cancerous or non-cancerous (benign). Pathologists also employ genetic studies and gene markers in assessing various diseases.

Our clinical pathologists run tests based on a physician’s suspicion and come up with results that either support or exclude the doctor’s assumption. That’s the reason pathologists are often referred to as a “doctor’s doctor”, because they help doctors in diagnosing and in taking the correct treatment decisions for patients.

SLG also has facilities for Surgical Pathology which is the most significant branch of pathology. Its primary focus is on examination of tissues with the naked eye or under a microscope for conclusive diagnosis of disease. It involves macroscopic (gross) and microscopic (histologic) tissue analysis where the molecular properties of tissue samples are assessed by immunohistochemistry or other laboratory tests. The specimens to be examined and assessed are received from sources such as small biopsies of skin, core biopsies for the diagnosis of cancer, and the operating room where tumors are removed.

Best Haematology Services in Hyderabad

Haematology is concerned with the care of patients with common disorders of the blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic systems (an important part of the immune system).

SLG’s team of haematologists has the expertise and experience to diagnose and manage a wide variety of blood disorders and malignancies, including hemophilia, sepsis, leukemia, lymphoma, thalassemia, anaemia, deep vein thrombosis, haemoglobinopathies and sickle-cell anaemia.

Among the tests generally performed by haematologists at SLG are complete blood picture (CBP), prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), international normalized ratio (INR) and bone marrow biopsy. 

Adopting a collaborative approach, our haematologists work with teams of doctors and subspecialists in other areas to come up with appropriate treatment options for patients’ specific needs. They are involved in many of the therapies and procedures related to the blood and bone marrow such as ablation therapy, blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants and stem cell donations, chemotherapy and biological therapies for cancer, growth factor treatments and immunotherapy.

Best Histology Services in Hyderabad

Histology is the study of the signs of the disease using the microscopic examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen that is processed and fixed onto glass slides. During examination, histologists look for changes in the tissue that might explain what is causing a patient’s illness. They are responsible for making tissue diagnoses and helping clinicians manage a patient’s care. Histologists can reach a diagnosis by examining a small piece of tissue from the skin, liver, kidney or other organ. The biological tissue specimens are basically of two main types:
  • Larger specimens include the entire organ or part of it, which is removed during a surgical procedure. This can include a uterus after a hysterectomy, the large bowel after a colectomy or tonsils after a tonsillectomy.
  • Pieces of tissue rather than whole organ which are removed by a biopsy Biopsies are of two types – excision biopsies (in which tissue is removed with a scalpel) and core biopsies (where a needle is inserted into a suspicious mass to remove a sliver of tissue)
Specimens received by the laboratory require initial tissue preparation, then are treated and analysed using techniques appropriate to the type of tissue and the investigation required. For immediate diagnosis during a surgical procedure, which may influence the type of surgery being performed, a frozen section is done. Histological sections of tissue are processed for microscopic viewing using either chemical fixation or frozen section. Frozen section processing involves freezing the tissue and generating thin frozen slices of the specimen which are mounted onto glass slides. Prior to viewing the tissue under a microscope, slides processed by chemical fixation or frozen section are either stained with chemicals or antibodies to reveal cellular components.

Best Cytopathology Services in Hyderabad

Cytopathology or cytology, is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level. It is usually used to aid in the diagnosis of cancer, but also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions. Cytopathology is generally used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments that spontaneously exfoliate or are removed from tissues by abrasion or fine needle aspiration, in contrast to histopathology, which studies whole tissues.

While studying the cells, the cytologist examines and assesses changes in the nucleus, such as its size, shape and appearance to diagnose possible cancer and even pre-cancer. “Pre-cancer” refers to cell changes which if left untreated could develop into true cancer.  

Cytology is extensively used in medicine for the prevention and diagnosis of many cancerous as well as non-cancerous medical conditions of the respiratory, urinary, and gastro-intestinal tracts as well as thyroid gland, salivary glands and lymph nodes etc.

For examination, the cells are taken by methods like:

  • Scraping or brushing the tissue surface, such as during a Pap test
  • Collecting body fluids, such as urine or respiratory mucus
  • Extraction with a needle (fine-needle aspiration), such as abdominal fluid in ascites, pleural fluid from the lungs, fluid-filled cysts, or lymph nodes
  • Tissue biopsy

Cytology screening tests enable a doctor to see if patients could be suffering from a certain disease, such as cancer, even before any of the symptoms are experienced or observed. While a Pap smear is a prime example of this, there are other uses for cytology tests, which include:

  • Diagnosis of infectious diseases.
  • Diagnosis of inflammatory conditions.
  • Examination of thyroid lesions.
  • Diagnosis of diseases concerning certain body cavities, such as the pleural cavity.

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Recently I had a knee injury, for treatment I went to SLG Hospitals. I was hardly walking receptionists and staff members immediately responded and accompanied me to ortho Dr. B.Chakradhar Reddy. He treated me really well and explained me the problem in a very simple neat way. Radiology technicians were also very helpful and supportive. I’m well satisfied with hospitality and over all service.
Ravali Kavoori

FAQs

Pathology is a major field of medical science that plays a significant role in the diagnosis of diseases, especially cancer. It is also known as the study of disease and focuses on the analysis and sampling of tissues, cells, and body fluids. 

Pathology has three main types, they are:
Clinical Pathology: Analysis of urine, tissue samples, and blood, and providing crucial information regarding urine electrolytes, blood count, etc. Anatomical Pathology: Autopsy to examine the whole body; or bodily specimens that are surgically removed from the body to determine a person’s anatomical makeup, the chemical signatures of cells, and cell appearance General Pathology: The study of any disease that affects or causes abnormalities in the functioning and general structure of any part of the body. This branch of pathology determines the causes, mechanisms, and potential outcomes of the disease, and also analyzes the clinical abnormalities that serve as the markers of certain diseases.

Pathology has several different categorizations, such as:
Cytopathology (also known as cytology) is widely used in the diagnosis of cancer and other infectious and inflammatory conditions. Dermatopathology focuses on the skin related diseases. Forensic Pathology is used to determine the cause of death of a deceased person. Histopathology studies biopsy samples and surgical specimens and involves microscopically examining the different forms of tissues present in the human body. Neuropathology studies diseases affecting the tissues in the nervous system. Pulmonary Pathology diagnoses the diseases that affect the lungs. Renal Pathology focuses on diseases of the kidneys; analyzes specimens obtained through a renal biopsy. Surgical Pathology examines surgical specimens through a combination of gross and histologic analysis. Hematopathology specializes in the study of diseases that affect the red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Molecular Pathology studies and diagnoses the molecules that make up the organs and tissues of the body. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology studies diseases that affect the oral cavity and its surrounding structure.

A pathologist is a medical practitioner who has the required expertise in the diagnosis of diseases based upon tissue examination. 
Due to the nature of their work, pathologists work closely with other medical practitioners. Their input is usually taken into consideration while the appropriate treatment plan is being constructed.

A pathology result or report is an important medical document that gives information about a diagnosis, such as cancer. To test for the disease, a sample of suspicious tissue is sent to a lab. A pathologist studies it to determine the doubt. They may also do tests to get more information.

A result can often be given within 2 to 3 days after the biopsy. A result that requires a more complicated analysis can take 7 to 10 days.

Generally, patients do not meet pathologists, despite the important role they play in the medical team and their significant contribution in deciding the treatment plan. It is crucial for both patient and the attending doctor to have confidence in the report.
In many cases, patients or even their doctors request for a second opinion from other pathologists, especially if the diagnosis is inconclusive.